A study reported that regular consumption of sugary cola was associated with an increased risk of rheumatoid arthritis in women, raising concerns about the effects of cola and autoimmune diseases. Recently, published in the journal cell found a study that found that long-term consumption of sugar cola drinks without caffeine can aggravate the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice, and relies on the existence of intestinal flora. Further investigation revealed that high - sugar cola drinks can change the composition of intestinal flora and increase the number of Th17 cells that produce the pro-inflammatory factor.
Long-term consumption of decaffeinated high - sugar cola aggravates the occurrence of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis
Researchers used a mouse model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, evaluation of several of the most common sugar coke influence on autoimmune diseases, including ordinary Coca-Cola, decaffeinated Coca-Cola, ordinary Pepsi, decaffeinated Pepsi and diet coke.
The researchers induced the mice to develop autoimmune encephalomyelitis after they were given free cola for eight weeks. The results showed that long-term consumption of decaffeinated Coca-Cola and decaffeinated Pepsi significantly increased the incidence of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis compared with the drinking water control group. However, regular Coca-Cola, regular Pepsi and diet coke had no significant impact. Researchers further limits the cola drinks every day, every day 5 ml each mice, found no caffeine Coca-Cola and Pepsi can still regular aggravating experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in the early stages of a disease. These results show that
Long-term consumption of decaffeinated high sugar cola increased the risk of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice.
The pathogenic role of Th17 cells in the treatment of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by decaffeinated high sugar cola
Th17 cells play a key role in the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by producing inflammatory cytokines. The pro-inflammatory cytokines il-17a, gm-csf, and ifn-dwelling, which are produced by Th17 cells, can be directly induced, and neutrophil and macrophage can be recruited to cause myelin damage. To investigate the association of caffeine-free, high-sugar cola with the disease, the researchers isolated lymphocytes from the central nervous system and lymph nodes in the groin and measured Th17 cell levels. The results showed that the consumption of caffeine-free, high-sugar cola significantly increased the levels of Th17 cells, which promote inflammation in the central nervous system, while no changes were observed in other groups. Surprisingly, the consumption of decaffeinated, high-sugar cola also significantly increased the number of Th17 cells in the inguinal lymph nodes, indicating the potential harm of these beverages. Lymph nodes adjust the function of T cells can inhibit Th17 cells and inhibit the onset of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, the researchers also tested the lymph nodes adjust the percentage of T cells, found no significant differences between groups. These results suggest that high - sugar - cola drinks specifically enhance the Th17 response without affecting the percentage of regulatory T cells.
In order to further verify the IL - 17 a role in the pathogenic process, the researchers by neutralizing antibody blocking IL - 17 a function, the results show that block the function of IL - 17 a experimental autoimmune disease, can significantly improve the cola drinks without caffeine high sugar for disease progression of disappeared.
In general, the Th17 cells play a key role in increasing the incidence of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.
Sugary cola drinks alter the composition of intestinal flora
Intestinal flora has a profound influence on the differentiation and development of Th17 cells and the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, and dietary patterns can change the composition of intestinal flora. Studies have found that all the cola drinks could significantly change the composition of intestinal flora. The intake of sugar cola drinks lead to Mr Bush's bacteria genera, small spirillum, butyric acid bacteria, fecal bacteria genera, desulfurization vibrios, gas bacillus and rumen bacteria of the genus aureus significantly increased, there are also some other bacteria significantly reduced. Specifically, the number of escherichia coli, shecella spiralis, C21_C20 and active rumen coccus in the intestinal tract of mice drinking high-sugar cola drinks increased significantly. These data suggest that the intake of high-sugar cola drinks selectively affects certain gut bacteria. Among these significantly increased intestinal bacteria, e. coli can cause chronic colitis and Th17 reactions, and rumen can promote the expression of inflammatory il-17 in mesenteric lymph nodes. In line with the changes of intestinal flora structure, the consumption of high-sugar cola beverage also resulted in a significant increase of intestinal Th17 response, and the levels of Th17 cells in the spleen of these mice also increased significantly. There was no significant change in Th17 levels in the intestines and spleen of mice drinking diet coke. These results further demonstrate the harmful effects of high - sugar cola beverage on Th17 stimulation.
The disease-promoting effects of caffeine-free diet coke depend on the presence of intestinal flora
In order to study the intestinal flora in caffeine sugar coke promote its effect in the process of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, researchers conducted experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis disease induced by antibiotics before removing the intestinal flora in mice. Mice were significantly less susceptible to experimental autoimmune diseases after intestinal flora was removed. In addition, in the absence of intestinal flora exist, all the cola drinks no longer show the promoting effect of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, these results suggest that sugar cola drinks on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis role requires the presence of intestinal flora.
In order to further verify the sugar cola drinks on the intestinal flora induced by changes associated with experimental autoimmune diseases increased, the researchers collected the fecal bacteria in mice of different cola drinks, and transplanted them into mice after antibiotics to clear the intestinal flora in advance. The results found that drinking cola drinks without caffeine high sugar mice fecal bacteria also can aggravate the occurrence of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, at the same time, these mice Th17 response also increased significantly. These results suggest that high-sugar cola drinks may increase the incidence of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by changing the intestinal flora of mice.
High sucrose intake increased the incidence of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis
Sucrose is digested in the small intestine into glucose and fructose, glucose, stimulates the production of ATP, bacteria and the ATP in lumen can promote lamina propria Th17 cell differentiation, and then promote colitis experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. The researchers examined the different cola drinks and 10% sucrose solution in mice after the level of ATP in the lumen, the results showed that high consumption of sugar cola drinks and 10% sucrose solution can significantly increase the level of ATP in the lumen, and diet coke won't. Scavenging intestinal bacteria removes almost all ATP from the intestinal lumen, and inhibits hyperglycemic-induced ATP elevation. These results suggest that high sucrose increases ATP in the intestinal lumen in a manner that is dependent on intestinal flora. Indeed, reconstructing intestinal flora restored ATP levels in the intestines of mice that had been cleared by antibiotics. Still, transplanting fecal bacteria from high-sugar cola drinks and 10% sucrose solution mice to antibiotic-treated mice did not improve the production of intestinal ATP compared with the drinking group. This suggests that high sucrose may directly stimulate the release of ATP in a way that intestinal flora relies on, rather than by increasing the number of atp-producing bacteria. Whether elevated ATP contributes to the aggravation of experimental autoimmune diseases remains to be further studied.
In general, these results suggest that sucrose in sugary cola drinks changes the composition of intestinal flora, increasing the Th17 cell response, and thus increasing the risk of experimental autoimmune diseases.
Caffeine can inhibit the harmful effects of sucrose
Interestingly, only decaffeinated diet coke with high sugar can increase the incidence of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Studies have shown that caffeine can inhibit inflammatory infiltration of lymphocytes to the central nervous system in delaying the onset of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and reduce the severity of the disease plays a protective role. Researchers to decaffeinated Coca-Cola to add caffeine (0.1 mg/ml), and then test its effect on the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, the results showed the addition of caffeine reduced the severity of the disease.
To further investigate the effect of caffeine on the harmful effects of high sucrose, the researchers added 0.1 mg/ml of caffeine to 10% sucrose solution and compared it with 10% pure sucrose solution. As expected, the addition of caffeine significantly delayed the onset of the disease and reduced the severity of the disease. On the whole
Caffeine eliminates the harmful effects of sucrose by reducing levels of inflammatory lymphocytes infiltrating the central nervous system without changing the peripheral Th17 response.
Maybe some people think that we should not drink caffeine-free cola, but choose regular cola instead. However, we can't ignore the damaging effects of high sugar content in cola on the balance of intestinal flora and the potential health risks in the future. So, will you continue to drink coke with impunity?
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